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National security management: concept, scope and existing provisions of national security in Nepal

by smartstudynotes
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Loksewa Second Paper Notes PSC

National security management refers to the comprehensive planning, coordination, and implementation of strategies and policies aimed at safeguarding a nation’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the well-being of its citizens. It involves identifying and addressing potential threats to the country’s security, both internal and external, and ensuring preparedness to respond effectively to emergencies or crises. Let’s delve into the concept, scope, and existing provisions of national security in Nepal:

  1. Concept of National Security Management in Nepal:
    In Nepal, national security management encompasses the protection of the nation’s territorial integrity, political stability, social harmony, economic development, and the safety and rights of its citizens. It involves a multi-dimensional approach that addresses traditional security concerns, such as defense and border management, as well as non-traditional security challenges, including terrorism, transnational crimes, natural disasters, and public health emergencies.
  2. Scope of National Security Management in Nepal:The scope of national security management in Nepal covers various aspects, including:

    a. Defense and Border Security: Ensuring the nation’s defense capabilities and safeguarding the borders to prevent any external threats.

    b. Internal Security: Addressing challenges related to terrorism, extremism, organized crime, and public safety within the country.

    c. Disaster Management: Developing and implementing disaster preparedness, response, and recovery plans to address natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc.

    d. Cybersecurity: Protecting the country’s critical infrastructure and digital assets from cyber threats and attacks.

    e. Socio-Economic Security: Promoting inclusive economic development and social welfare to address the root causes of instability and insecurity.

    f. Intelligence and Information Sharing: Strengthening intelligence gathering and analysis to identify potential threats and facilitate timely response measures.

    g. International Relations: Engaging in diplomatic efforts to build cooperative relationships with neighboring countries and the international community for mutual security interests.

  3. Existing Provisions of National Security in Nepal:In Nepal, national security management is guided by various legal and policy frameworks. Some of the key provisions and institutions related to national security include:

    a. The Constitution of Nepal: The constitution outlines the fundamental principles of national security, including sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the role of the Nepal Army in safeguarding the nation.

    b. National Security Policy: Nepal has formulated a National Security Policy to guide its overall security management and address emerging security challenges.

    c. Security Sector Reform (SSR): Nepal has been undergoing security sector reform to enhance the efficiency, accountability, and effectiveness of its security agencies.

    d. Nepal Army: The Nepal Army is the principal military force responsible for defending the country’s borders and assisting in times of natural disasters and emergencies.

    e. Nepal Police: The Nepal Police is the primary law enforcement agency responsible for maintaining internal security and public order.

    f. National Intelligence Agency: Nepal has established a National Intelligence Agency to gather and analyze intelligence to address security threats.

    g. Disaster Management Framework: Nepal has a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) to coordinate disaster preparedness, response, and recovery efforts.

    h. Cybersecurity Provisions: Nepal is in the process of developing and implementing policies and regulations to enhance cybersecurity measures and protect critical information infrastructure.

Nepal faces various security challenges, including its geopolitical location, socio-economic disparities, and potential transnational threats. Effective national security management requires a coordinated effort among different government agencies, international cooperation, and a holistic approach that considers both traditional and non-traditional security concerns.

  • Geopolitical location: Nepal is located in a strategically important region, bordering India to the south, China to the north, and the Tibetan Autonomous Region to the northeast. This location makes Nepal a potential target for geopolitical competition between major powers, and it also exposes the country to the risk of cross-border conflict.
  • Socio-economic disparities: Nepal is a developing country with a high degree of inequality. This inequality can create social unrest and instability, which can in turn lead to security threats.
  • Potential transnational threats: Nepal is also vulnerable to a variety of transnational threats, such as terrorism, organized crime, and human trafficking. These threats can pose a serious challenge to Nepal’s security and stability.

Effective national security management in Nepal requires a coordinated effort among different government agencies, international cooperation, and a holistic approach that considers both traditional and non-traditional security concerns.
Coordinated effort among different government agencies: Nepal’s national security apparatus is fragmented, with responsibility for different aspects of security spread across a variety of government agencies. This fragmentation can make it difficult to coordinate a coherent response to security threats.

  • International cooperation: Nepal is a small country with limited resources. It is therefore important for Nepal to cooperate with international partners to address its security challenges.
  • Holistic approach: Nepal’s security challenges are complex and multifaceted. A holistic approach that considers both traditional and non-traditional security concerns is needed to address these challenges effectively.

The provisions related to national security in Nepal are outlined in the Constitution of Nepal, 2015, and other relevant laws and policies 12. The National Security Policy, 2016, is also published by the Ministry of Defence 3.

According to Loksewa MCQ 1, national security management in Nepal is divided into two areas: external security management and internal security management. External security management includes border security, terrorism control, cross-border crime control, and neighborhood relations. Internal security management includes internal political conflict, ethnic/religious conflict, organized crime, and social crime. Nepal has been working on preventing human trafficking, terrorist activities, money laundering, arms race, and peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighbors.

The security committee has been formed to resolve local security problems, and a flexible policy of conflict resolution is in operation. High alertness is given to resolve conflicts relating to ethnicity and religion. Massive effort is given to control social conflict and social crime. Control of organized crime and policy/law formulation to punish them appropriately is also in place. Various security bodies like Nepal Police, Armed Police Force (APF), Nepal Army, CIB (Central Investigation Bureau) etc. have been formed to ensure national security 1.

1: Loksewa MCQ 2: Gyan Park 3: Nepal in Data

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